Nandigram is a rural area in Purba Medinipur district of the Indian state of West Bengal. It is located about 70 km south-west of Kolkata, on the south bank of the Haldi River, opposite the industrial city of Haldia. The area falls under the Haldia Development Authority.
In 2007 the West Bengal government decided to allow Salim Group to set up a chemical hub at Nandigram under the SEZ policy. This led to resistance by the villagers resulting in clashes with the police that left 14 villagers dead, and accusations of police brutality.
During the Bengal famine of 1943, Qudrat Ullah Shahab (who later became a famous Urdu writer in Pakistan) served in Nandigram as magistrate in pre-independence India - he came under fire from the authorities when he was involved in distributing strategic wheat reserves to the starving local community.
The Communist Party of India holds Nandigram assembly constituency as well as neighbouring Patashpur, Panskura (West) and Tamluk constituencies.
The controversy over the state government plan to build a petrochemical complex in Nandigram led majority of the citizens of Nandigram to organise against the forced acquisition of land, supported by opposition parties. The Trinamool Congress, Socialist Unity Centre of India (SUCI), Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind and Indian National Congress cooperated to establish the Bhumi Uchhed Pratirodh Committee ('Committee against Land Evictions'). The aim of BUPC was to protect the farmers' livelihoods.
Several writers, artists, poets and academicians took a strong position against the government's plan to build the chemical hub in Nandigram which in turn brought significant international attention.
As a direct aftermath of the West Bengal government's Special Economic Zone policy, in the panchayat elections of May 2008, CPI(M) and its left front allies were defeated in Nandigram, adjoining areas and Singur by the Trinamool Congress-SUCI alliance. The Trinamool Congress-SUCI alliance and the Congress wrested the Zilla Parishads from the CPI-M in three districts of the 16 districts of West Bengal.
In March 2001, Nandigram II Block of Medinipur District claimed to have achieved full toilet coverage in the entire block.
The area has a college affiliated to Vidyasagar University, and there are several schools.
There is no rail connection and roads and other means of reaching Nandigram are ill-developed. Buses, jitney trekkers and van rickshaws are the primary public vehicles inside the villages. Nandigram is connected by ferry with Haldia.
Within the village, houses are not very close to each other so one has to walk for many a mile as van rikshaws are incapable of travelling on the small mud roads (aal path).